University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester IV,CS-522 – Computer Graphics and Visualization

Aims & Objectives : This is first course introducing basics of computer graphics and various visualization techniques.

Course Content : Introduction: History, Advantages, Application, I/O Devices Graphic Packages, Languages. 2D Graphics: Drawing Elementary figures, Polygon Filling, Transformations, Windowing and clipping, Display file segmentation. Interactive Graphics: Interactive input techniques, Event handling, Input functions; 3D Graphics and Realism: Mathematical Preliminaries, Curves and Surfaces, Clipping, Hidden line and surface removal, rendering, real-time graphics; Introduction to Visualization, Tools for Visualization, Applications etc.

Recommended Books :

D. Hearn and M. P. Baker: Computer Graphics, IEEE, 1989.

Rogers: Mathematical elements for Computer Graphics, McGraw-Hill, 1985.

Newman and R. F. Sproull: Principles of Interactive Graphics, McGraw-Hill, 1979.

Harrington, Computer Graphics: A programming approach, McGraw-Hill, 1987.

M. Berger: Computer graphics with Pascal, Benjamin/Cummings, 1986.

Foley & A. Van Dam: Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics, Addison Wesley, 1982.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester IV,CS-521 – Software Technology and Management

Aims & Objectives : This course is more applied in nature, emphasizing the technological and management aspects of software projects.

Course Content : Software Selection, Software Quality Assurance and Standards – ISO standards, IEEE standards, as also the CMM of CMU Software Tools and Software Re-engineering. Advances in SE such as OOA, OOD, OOSE, etc., Software Metrics.

Software Projects: Risk analysis and Risk Management in Software Projects. Productivity circle laws and cost-estimation models. Basics of software technology for the internet applications and web site development software products, development and marketing strategies.

Recommended Books :

Handbook of SE

Handbook on SQA

Research Papers on SE and Software Management

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester III,CS-515 – Theory of Computation (514-523 level)

Aims & Objectives : First course in theory of computation leading up to the concepts of complexity and undecidability.

Course Content :Introduction, Graph Notation, Set theory, grammar and relations. Finite automata: DFA, NFA, Regular Expressions and their Equivalencies, Moore and Melay machines.Regular Expressions: Properties, Pumping lemma, Minimizing the Automata. Context Free Grammars: definitions, Derivation tree, Ambiguity, Chomsky and Greibach – Normal forms, Pumping Lemma for FL. PDA: Definition and Equivalence of PDA and CFL. Introduction to Turing Machines, ndecidability and complexity theory.

Recommended Books :

Aho, Hopcraft & Ullman: Automata, Languages and Computation; Narosa.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester III,CS-514 – Computer Networks (514-523 level)

Aims & Objectives : This is a first course in computer networks introducing all the essential concepts and builds a basis for further courses such as Internet Technologies, Electronic Commerce and Multimedia. This course should be (ideally) run with a course on Network Programming where the programming and systems aspects of the network concepts are consolidated in a practical sense. (The network programming course could also follow this in a subsequent semester.)

Course Contents : Communications Model: Communications model, data communications tasks; networking, layering and design issues, ISO-OSI model, protocols, services, standards, network goals and applications.

Data Communication: Physical layer; transmission media, encoding, interfaces, switching and signaling methods, multiplexing and medium access control.

Data Link Layer: Framing, error control, flow control, data link protocols, retransmission strategies and their performance.

Network Layer: Routing and congestion control algorithms, inter-networking principles, Internet Protocol, bridges etc. devices.

Transport Layer: Transport services, connection management, TCP, UDP, quality of service parameters, TCP/IP over ATM networks.

Network Security: Data encryption strategies, authentication protocols, firewalls.

Basic applications: telnet, rlogin, FTP. TFTP, NFS, DNS, SMTP, MIME, SNMP, HTTP etc. Network Infrastructure for advanced applications: E-commerce, multimedia, mobile and wireless computing.

Recommended Books :

Bertsekas, D and Gallager, B.: Data Networks, Prentice Hall of India 1992. (2nd Edition)

Black, U.D.: TCP/IP and Related Protocols, MacGraw Hill New York 1995.

Black, U.D.: Computer Networks, Protocols Standards and Interfaces, Prentice Hall International

Comer (includes Comer and Stevens, D.L. three Volumes): Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles protocols and architecture, Prentice Hall of India, 1995.

Goralski, W.J.: Introduction to ATM networking, McGraw Hill New York, 1995.

Keshav, S.: Computer Networks: an Engineering Approach, Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1997.

Stallings, W.: Network and Internetwork security, Prentice Hall International 1995.

Stallings, W. Data and Computer Communication 5th Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 1997.

Stevens, W.R: TCP/IP Illustrated ( Three Volumes), Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. 1995

Tanenbaum, A.S.: Computer Networks Third Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 1997

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester III, CS-513 – Software Engineering – I

Aims & Objectives : To introduce the principles, concepts and practices of software engineering.

Course Content : Introduction to System Concepts, Software Engineering Concepts, SE Methodology, Life Cycle Models, Software Development Approaches, Need for Management and Role of Management in SE, Requirements Analysis, SADT, Alternative Analysis Techniques, Formal Approaches in SE, Design Techniques, Role of PL in Software Development, Coding Principles and Programming Techniques, Software Testing, Software Configuration Management, Software Maintenance and Current and Future trends in SE.

Recommended Books :

R. Pressman: Software Engineering – a practioner’s approach, McGraw Hill 1992.

Ghezi, etal: Fundamentals of SE, PHI New Delhi 1995.

P. Jalote: An Integrate approach to SE, Narosa Publishers, 1992.

Yourdon: Modern Structured Analysis, PHI New Delhi 1995.

Harwiz kwiz: Systems Analysis and Design, PHI New Delhi 1995.

Jag Sodhi: SE – Management Application and Tools, McGraw Hill, 1987.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester III, CS-512 – Operating Systems

Course Content : History, Evolution and Philosophy Hardware evolution Economic Forces and constraints Structuring methods : Layered model, object – server model Application needs and significant case histories.

Tasking and Processes Tasks, processes Structures; ready list, process control block etc. Despatching, content switches Role of interrupts.

Process co-ordination and synchronization Concurrent execution Sharing access, race conditions Deadlock: Causes, conditions, prevention Models and mechanisms (eg. Busy waiting, spin locks, Dekker’s algorithm, semaphores, mutex locks, region, monitors) Scheduling and Dispatch Preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling schedules and policies.

Physical and Virtual Memory Organization Physical memory and registers Overlays, swapping, partitions Pages and segments Placement and replacement policies Thrashing, working sets.Device Management Free lists, layout Servers, interrupts Recovery from failures

File Systems and Naming File layout (eg. Indexed, contiguous) Directories, contents and structure Naming, searching, access, backups Fundamental file concepts; basic file Organizations, basic file manipulations, blocking and buffering Sequential files Non sequential files (eg. hashed files, tree-structured files, B-trees, multiple key files)

Security and Protection Overview of System security with examples Security methods and devices, protection access, authentication Memory protection Recovery Management Communications and Networking Protocol suites Streams and datagrams Internetworking and routing Servers, services

Distributed and Real time systems Synchronization and timing Failures, risks and recovery Special concerns in real-time systems

Recommended Books :

Silberschatz and Galvin, “Operating System Concepts” Addison Wesley fifth edition 1997.

Tanenbaum “Modern Operating Systems” Prentice Hall India. 1992.

Stallings “Operating System” PH I Second edition. 1994.

Crowley “Operating Systems A design Oriented Approach” Tata MacGraw Hill 1998.

References :

Beck et al. “Linux Kernel Internals”, Addison Wesley Longman, Second Edition.

U. Vahalia, ” Unix Internals”, Prentice Hall International 1997.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester III, CS-511 – Data Base Management Systems

Aim & Objective : To teach database theory and applications.

Course Content : Introduction: Aims and Objectives, Technology involved and current uses of the technology.

Data Models: Entity-Relationship model, Network model, Hierarchical model.

Database design: Normalization principles and their uses. Secondary data storage and retrieval techniques.

Query Processing: Studies on query processing strategies and cost estimation.

Transaction Processing: Defining Properties and studies on recovery and concurrency. Security and Integrity.

Distributed Databases: Introduction, Issues on design, concurrency, recovery, deadlock handling and co-ordinator selection.

Practical: Practice on database designs and SQL programming and One or Two mini-projects on design & development of database applications.

Recommended Books :

H. F. Korth and A. Silberschatz: Database Systems & Concepts, McGrawHill Publications.

R. Elmasri, S. B. Navathe: Fundamentals of Database Systems, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company.

Stefano Ceri, G. Pellagatti: Distributed Databases Principles & Systems, McGrawHill.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester II,CS-461 – Information System Management

Aims & Objectives : To introduce the concepts and practices of Management Information Systems

Course Content : Introduction to data processing concepts, MIS, data collection, preparation, verification, editing and checking, storage, retrieval, records, files. Business files – Master and Transaction file, file generations, back-ups and file recovery procedures, Disk and Tape based files; Storage Organizations and accessing methods. COBOL programming – language constructs and structured programming features, examples for files accessing. File sorting, searching, merging, matching, Table handling, Report Writer, DBMS Concepts.

Recommended Books :

R J Verzello, John Reutter III: Data Processing: Systems and Concepts, Mc Graw Hill Book Co.- 1982.

Roy, M.K. and Dastidar Ghosh, D: COBOL Programming, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Comp. Ltd. 1982.

Philippakis and Kazmier: Information system Through COBOL 2nd Ed. McGraw Hill Int. Ed.

Philippakis and Kazmier: Advanced COBOL Programming – McGraw Hill.

Popkin, G.S.: Advanced structured COBOL 2nd Edn. Kent Publ. Comp. 1987.

Pierson & Horn: Structured COBOL Programming, Scott Freshman and Co. 1986.

Rajaraman, V. & Sahasrabuddhe, H.V.: Computer Programming in COBOL, Prentice-Hall India.

Grover, P.S: Programming with Structured COBOL, Macmillan, 1989.

A Stern & Stern: Structured COBOL Programming – Addison Wesley.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester II, CS-441 – Computer Based Optimization Techniques

Aims & Objectives : To introduce various optimization techniques and their computer implementation.

Course Content : Optimization Problems; The Simplex Algorithm; Duality; Computational Considerations for the Simplex Algorithm Max-Flow and Shortest Path; Transportation Problem, Assignment Problem; Integer Linear Programming; Cutting-Plane Algorithm for Integer Linear Programs; Branch-And-Bound and Dynamic Programming;

Recommended Books :

Christos H. Papadimitriou and Kenneth Steiglitz: Combinatorial Optimization (Algorithms and Complexity).

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester II,CS-423 – Algorithmics

Aims & Objectives : This course builds on Data Structures and emphasizes design and analysis of algorithms.

Course Content : Efficiency of algorithms; Asymptotic Notation; Analysis of Algorithms; Solving recurrences; Application of data structures; Greedy Algorithms, Spanning trees, shortest paths, knapsack problem, scheduling problem; Divide-and-conquer, binary search, sorting; Dynamic programming principle of optimality; Graph Algorithms, BFS, DFS, Back tracking, Branch and Bound; Computation Complexity, reductions and introduction to NP-completeness; Examples and brief overview of heuristic, probabilistic and parallel algorithms, String Matching methods.

Recommended Books :

Fundamentals of Algorithms, G.Brassard and P.Bratley, PH India 1997.

Fundamentals of Computer Algorithms, E.Horowitz and S.Sahani, Galgotia publications.

Introduction to Algorithms, T.H.Cormen, CE Leigerson, R.Rivest, PH India 1998.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester II, CS-422 – File Structures

Aims & Objectives : While the course in Data Structures emphasizes data storage schemes in the main memory, the basic aim of this course is to introduce the concepts of external data storage schemes.

Course Content : Introduction to File Structures; Fundamental File Processing Operations; Physical Files and Logical Files, Opening files, Closing Files, Reading and Writing, Seeking. Secondary Storage and System Software; Disks, Magnetic Tape, Disk versus Tape, Buffer Management, I/O in UNIX. Fundamental File Structure Concepts; Field and Record Organization, Record Access, File Access and File Organization. Organizing Files for Performance; Data Compression, Reclaiming Space in Files, Key sorting. Indexing; Consequential Processing and the Sorting of Large Files; B-Trees and Other Tree-structured File Organizations; The B+ Tree Family and Indexed Sequential File Access; Hashing; Extendible Hashing.

Recommended Books :

Michael J. Folk and Bill Zoellick, “File Structures” (Second Edition).

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester II, CS-421 – Data Structures

Aims & Objectives : This is a first level course that describes various structuring methods of data and their practical use.

Course Content : Fundamental Notations: Primitive and Composite Data types, Time and Space Complexity of Algorithms, Sorting Algorithms. Data Structures: Stacks, Queues, Arrays, Linked Lists, Trees and Graphs. Advanced Data structures used in ccomputational Geometry and Graph theory.

Recommended Books :

Wirth, Nicolaus: Algorithms + Data structures = Programs. Prentice – Hall International, 1975.

Horowitz, E., and Sahni.S: Fundamentals of Data structures. Computer Science Press, 1978.

Knuth, D.: The Art of Computer Programming, Vols. 1-2. Addison-Wesley, 1970-80.

Aho, A. V., Hopcroft, and Ullman, J.E.: Data Structures with Pascal, Prentice-Hall International, 1985.

Tanenbaum, A.M., and Augenstein, M.J.: Data Structures with Pascal, Prentice-Hall International, 1985.

Stubbas, D.: Data Structures with Abstract Data Types and Modula2, Brooks & Cole Pub. Co. 1987.

Trembley & Sorenson: An Introduction to Data Structures with Applications; Tata McGraw Hill.

Kruse, R. L., Leung, B. P., and Tondo, C. L.: Data Structures and Program Design in C; Prentice-Hall of India, 1999.

Weiss, M. A.: Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++; Addison-Wesley, 1994.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester I,CS-432 – Computer Oriented Statistical Methods

Aims & Objectives : To familiarize students with basic statistical concepts and their application in different areas of computer science. Also to introduce students to efficient algorithms for computing different statistical measures.

Course Content : Basic statistical measures – mean, median, standard deviation, skew, kurtosis; rank, percentile, frequency distributions, standard distributions, regression analysis, least squares fit, polynomial and curve fitting, multiple regression; Introduction to time-series analysis, forecasting, moving averages, autoregressive models, ARMA, ARIMA models; Goodness of fit methods, ANOVA, F-test, applications to computer Science.

Recommended Books :

W.H. Press, Numerical recipes in C, Cambridge University Press.

Statsoft : Statsoft online Textbook,

C. Chatfield: An Introduction to Time-Series Analysis, Oxford University Press.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester I,CS-411 – Programming Methodology

Aims & Objectives : To inculcate problem-solving skills and to introduce basics of programming through C language to entry-level computer science students.

Course Content : Problem Analysis, flow Charts, decision tables. Pseudo codes and Algorithms, High level language and Programmer’s Model of Computer System. Algorithmic Programming Language: Representation of integers, reals, characters, constants and variables, arithmetic expressions and their evaluation using rules of hierarchy. Assignment statements, Logical constants variables and expression Control structures – sequencing alteration, iteration. Arrays, Manipulating vectors and matrices. Subroutines overhead cost, interpretation of the variances. Compiling, debugging and testing in integrated development environment.

Recommended Books :

Kerninghan, BW. and Richie, DM.: The C programming language, PHI, 2nd edition, 1999.

Michael Schneider; Introduction to problem solving and programming through pascal.

Drmey R.G.: How to solve it by Computer.

Gries D.: Science of programming.

Niklaus Wirth.: Data Structures + Algorithms = Programs.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester I,CS-451 – Accounting and Financial Management

Aims & Objectives : To introduce basic concepts of accounting and financial management to entry-level computer science students and work toward basics of computerized accounting & financial management systems.

Course Content : Accounting: Principles, Concepts and Conventions, Double entry system of Accounting, Introduction of basic books of Accounts of sole proprietary concern, Control Accounts for Debtors and Creditors, Closing of books of Accounts and preparation of Trial balance. Final Accounts: Trading, Profit and Loss accounts and Balance sheet of sole proprietary concern with normal closing entries. Introduction to Manufacturing account, finally accounts of partnership firms, limited Co.. Financial Management: Meaning and role. Ratio Analysis: Meaning, Advantages, Limitation, Types of ratios and their usefulness. Fund flow statement: Meaning of the terms – fund, flow and fund, working capital cycle, preparation and interpretation of the fund flow statement. Costing : Nature, importance and basic principles. Budget and budgetary control: Nature, scope and importance. Break-even analysis, it’s uses and limitations, construction of break even chart, practical applications of marginal costing. Standard costing: Nature and scope, Computation and analysis of variances with reference to material cost, labour cost and overhead cost, interpretation of the variances. Introduction to computerized accounting system: Coding logic and codes required, master files, transaction files, Introduction to documents used for data collection, Processing of different files and output obtained.

Recommended Books :

Kellock, J.: Elements of Accounting, Heinemann, 1978.

Rockley, L.E.: Finance for the Non-Accountant, 2nd Edn. Basic Books, 1976.

Levy and Sarnet,: Principles of Financial Management Prentice-Hall International.

Arnold. : Financial Accounting, Prentice-Hall International.

Horngren, and Sundem,: Introduction to Financial Accounting, Prentice-Hall International.

Murthy , U.S. : Management Finance, 2nd Edn., Vakils Fefers & Simons Ltd., 1978.

Van Home, James, C.: Financial Management & Policy, Prentice Inc. Pandey, I.M.: Financial Management, Vikas Publications 1978.

University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester I-CS-412 – Computer Organization

Aims & Objectives : This is a first level course, suitable for both hardware and software oriented students. It not only describes computer structures solely from the programming viewpoint, but also for those who will eventually work with systems that involve a variety of equipment, interfacing, and communication facilities.

Course Content : Overview of Computer Hardware, History and technological milestones. Data representation: Codes, number systems, integer representation, sign magnitude, 1’s complement, 2’s complement. Boolean Algebra, Boolean expressions and their simplification. SOP and POS. Karnaugh Maps, Basic logic gates, logic diagrams. Combinational circuits: Half adder, Full adder, Subtractor, multiplexer, demultiplexer, decoder, encoder. Sequential circuits: Latches, Flip-flops, RS, JK, D, T types. Counter, shift registers etc. Basic Computer organization, Instruction set, Register transfer language, CPU: Control unit construction, Instruction cycle. Memory organization: Memory hierarchy, Cache, Main memory, auxiliary memory. IO organization, interfacing, Polling, interrupt, Vectored and daisy interrupt structures. DMA, microinstructions, control memory. Computer Arithmetic, Floating point numbers underflow, overflow, precision consideration.

Recommended Books :

V.Carl Hamacher, Zvonko G. Vranesic, Safwat G. Zaky, Computer Organization, McGraw-Hill International Edition, 1996.

Computer System Architecture, Morris M. Mano, Prentice Hall.

Comment for University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester I-CS-412 – Computer Organization
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University of Hyderabad (UOH) Syllabus of Master of Computer Applications (MCA), Semester I- CS-431 – Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science

Aims & Objectives : To provide basic mathematical foundation required for various computer science courses.

Course Content : Discrete Maths: Theory of Sets; Mathematical Induction; Relations and Functions; Recurrence Relation; Calculus: Functions; Limits and Continuity; Differentiation and Integration; Differential Equations. Logic: Logic operators such as AND, OR etc., Truth tables; Theory of inference and Deductions; Mathematical Introduction; Predicate calculus Predicates and Quantifiers.

Linear equation & Matrices: Row/Column operations; Gaussian Elimination; Decomposition; Inverse; Determinants; Properties of determinants; Cramer’s Rule; Decomposition; Inverse. Vector spaces Linear Independence, Bases, subspace and dimensionality, Length, angle, direction cosines; orthogonalizations. Theory of Graphs: Graphs, sub graphs, isomorphism; Classes of graphs; paths and cycles; Trees; Connectivity; Planar Graphs; Hamiltonian and Eulerian Graphs.

Recommended Books :

Korthage, R.R.: Discrete Computational Structures, Academic Press, 1974.

Preparata, F.P.: Introduction to Discrete structures, Addison-Wesley, 1973.

Trembley, J.P. and Manohar R.P.: Introduction to Discrete Mathematical structures with Applications to Computer Science, McGraw Hill, 1975.

Lew: Computer Science: Mathematical Introduction, Prentice Hall International.

Sikkim Manipal University Syllabus of– Master of Science – Sustainable Development

Introduction to Sustainable Development



Habitat and Population

Atmospheric Pollution

Sea Level Rise

Global Warming and Ozone Depletion

Small Island Development

Protected Area Networks



Forest Conservation

Green Movements

Green Philosophy

Environmental Policies

Marine and Atmospheric Pollution


Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Management

Sikkim Manipal University Syllabus of– Master of Science – Disaster Mitigation

Introduction to Disaster Mitigation


Coastal and Marine Disasters

Atmospheric Disasters


Mass Movement and Land Disasters

Forest Related Disasters

Wind and Water Driven Dias asters

Technological and Man Made Disasters

War and Chemicals

Master’s Thesis

Comment for Sikkim Manipal University Syllabus of– Master of Science – Disaster Mitigation
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Sikkim Manipal University Syllabus of– Master of Science – Ecology and Environment

Introduction to Ecology and Environment

State of India’s Environment

Global Environmental Issues

Environmental Education

Population and Community Ecology

Natural Resources Conservation

Environmental Protection and Law

Environmental Impact Assessment

Pollution Monitoring and Control

Research Methodology and Systems Analysis

Master’s Thesis