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Archive for the ‘Madras University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu’ Category

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Marine Science – Semester I – Allied Subject I – Geology I

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 75
Credits: 3

Unit I

Physical Geology

Origin of the Earth – Age of the Earth – Interior of the earth – Earthquakes: Definition – Effects – Causes – Volcanoes: Distribution – Causes – Effects of volcanic eruptions – Geological work of Running water and Underground water. Brief outline of Seas and Oceans.

Unit II

Structural Geology

Introduction to Structural geology: Topographic maps – Geologic maps – Outcrops and their trends with reference to slope and topography – Clinometer compass and its uses – Brief Study of Folds – Faults – Unconformities – Joints.

Unit III

Stratigraphy

Principles of Stratigraphy – Standard stratigraphic scale – Contemporaneity – Homotaxis – Physiographic divisions of India – Brief study of Archaean rocks Cuddapah – Vindhyans – Gondwanas – Trassic of Spiti Jurassic of Kutch – Cretaceous succession of Tiruchirappalli and Pondicherry – Bagh beds of Narmada valley – Lameta beds – Deccan traps – Origin – Composition – Distribution – Age – Siwaliks.

Unit IV

Paleontology

Definition of fossil – Nature and modes of preservation of fossils – Uses of fossils – Brief study of Corals – Echinoids – Crinoids – Pelecypods – Cephalopods – Brachiopods – Trilobites – Graptolites – Gondwana flora of India – An outline of the uses of Micropaleontology.

Unit V

Mineralogy

Physical properties of minerals – Brief study of the following rock forming minerals – Feldspar group – Amphibole group – Pyroxene group – Olivine group – Quartz group – Mica group – Garnet group.

Books Recommended

Principles of Physical Geology by Arthur Holmes, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., London, 1965.

Introduction to Physical Geology by A.K. Datta, Kalyani Pub., New Delhi-Ludhiana, 1981.

Structural Geology by Marland Billings, Prentice Hall, India, 1984.

General Geology by R.J. Foster, Merrill Pub. Co., London, 1988.

Physical Geology by L. Donald Leet and Sheldon Judson, Prentice Hall, India.

General Geology by Radhakrishnan.

Geology of India by D.N. Wadia, Mc Millan, London,1957.

Stratigraphic Principles and Practice by J.M. Weller, Harper and Brothers Pub., New York, 1960.

Invertebrate Palaeontology by Heniy Woods, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1967.

Geology of India and Burma by M.S. Krishnan, CBS Publishers and Distributiors, New Delhi, 1982.

Fundamentals of Historical Geology and Stratigraphy of India by Ravindra Kumar, Wilely Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, 1985.

Invertebrate Paleontology by Shrock and Twenhofel.

Dana’s Manual of Mineralogy by Cornelius S. Huribut, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1959.

An Introduction to Rock-forming Minerals by W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie and J. Zussman, Longman Group Ltd., London, 1979.

Rutley’s Elements of Mineralogy by CD. Gribble, 27th Edition, Unwin Hyman; London, 1988.

Dana’s Text Book of Mineralogy by W.E. Ford, 4th Edition, Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, 1992.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Marine Science – Semester I – Paper I – Principles of Oceanography

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Geologic history of the oceans – Early history of Oceanography and World exploration – Modern Technology in Oceanography – Seas – Oceans – Ocean floor – Continental shelf – Continental slope – Abyssal basin – Introduction to hydrographic surveying.

Unit II

Marine instrumentation – Echosounder – Side Sanning Sonar – marine navigator (GPS) – underwater camera, etc., – Marine structures – vehicles – long term geologic history of oceans.

Unit III

Structure and motion of the ocean and its environs – properties, populations and energy budget – Oceanic currents – Oceanic water masses and circulation – Ocean waves and Tsunamis.

Unit IV

Ocean resources and exploration – Early expeditions and recent expeditions – Bioresources of the sea – Food production from the sea – Energy production from the sea – Mineral resources of the sea surface – Manganese and Phosphatic nodules – sub surface mineral resources of the ocean – Petroleum resources.

Unit V

Introduction to marine life – Life process in the marine environment – Ocean’s Food web – Fish in schools – Sharks – Lobsters – Marine flora – sea weeds and sea grass.

Books Recommended

Oceanography, Contemporary readings in Ocean Sciences by Gorden Pine,

Principles of Physical Oceanography by Allen, J.R.L published., Allen and Unwin

Introduction to Physical Oceanography by Knauss, J.A., Prentice-Hall

Introduction to Oceanography by Weighpt

Physical Geology by Arthur Holmes.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester VI – Application Oriented Subject – Ground Water Geology and Exploration

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Geological structures favouring ground water occurrence – Water bearing properties of rocks – Porosity, Permeability and Transmissivity – Storage coefficient – specific yield – specific retention and field capacity.

Unit II

Groundwater movement – Darcy’s law and its applications – Determination of Permeability in the lab and field – Types of wells – well construction and development – collection of wells – Infiltration galleries.

Unit III

Quality of ground water – Pyhsical, chemical and biological constituents of groundwater – water quality criteria for drinking, industrial and irrigation purposes – Sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers and its preventive measures.

Unit V

Percolation ponds and check dams – water logging techniques and its uses

Unit V

Piezometric tests, Pumping tests, Basin yield – Sources of ground water – Ground water exploration methods Electric, Resistivity methods – Groundwater basins in India,

Books Recommended

Ground water Hydrogeology by D.K. Todd, Wiley Interscience, New Delhi, 1982.

Ground water by H M. Ragunath, Wiley Interscience, New Delhi, 1987.

Groundwater Assessment, Development & Management by K.R. Karanth, Tata McRaw Hill Publishers, 1987.

Groundwater and Tube wells by S.P. Garg, Oxford & INH Publishers, 1982.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester VI – Application Oriented Subject – Mineral and Hydrocarbon Exploration

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Geological method – Application of air photo / satellite imagery – Geological mapping – Structural interpretation – sampling.

Unit II

Geophysical survey – Brief outline of Airborne survey – Ground survey – Gravity, Magnetic, Electrical, Self potential, Electromagnetic and Radioactive methods.

Unit III

Geochemical surveys – Mobility of elements and geochemical cycle – Primary and secondary dispersion pattern – Methods of sampling – Soil – Rock – stream and vegetation – Geochemical anomalies.

Unit IV

Trenching – Drilling – Assaying – Various methods of ore reserve calculation – Economic viability and feasibility report.

Unit V

Hydrocarbon exploration – Seismic survey – Selection of drilling sites – Drilling for oil – Well logging – Resistivity log – Self potential log – Gamma ray log – Newton log – Density log – Caliper log – temperature log – Oil well completion- Oil / gas reserve calculation – Oil recovery enhancement.

Books Recommended

Outlines of Geophysical prospecting by Ramachandra Rao. M.B & Prasaranja, University of Mysore, 1975.

Geology of Petroleum by Levorson. A.C & Vakils, Peter & Simon Ltd., 1972.

Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration by Hawkes H.E & Web, Harper & Row Publishes, 1965.

Practical aspects of Exploration and Prospecting by Babu S.K and Sinha D.K, CBS Publishers & Distribution.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester VI – Application Oriented Subject – Clay Mineralogy and Limestones

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Classification of clays – Kaolin or china clay, Ball Clay, Stoneware clay, Fuller’s earth, Bentonite, Pottery clay and their properties and uses.

UNIT II

Physical properties of clays – Mineralogy and uses of clays – Clay deposits of India.

UNIT III

Clay occurrence in Tamil Nadu Clay production and reserves.

Unit IV

Limestones – Mode of formation – Depositional environments Classification of carbonate rocks – Cement grade and flux grade limestone.

Unit V

Limestone deposits of India – Raw materials required for cement industry – Cement manufacture – Limestone deposits of Tamil Nadu and their Reserve details.

Books Recommended

Industrial Minerals & Rocks of India by S. Deb. Allied Publishes Pvt. Ltd., Chennai.

India’s Mineral Resourecs by S. Krishnasamy, Oxford IBH Publishers New Delhi, 1972.

Minerals of Madras by NICN Iyengar, Dept. of Industries and Commerce. Tamil Nadu. 1964.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester VI – Application Oriented Subject – Commercial Granites and Gemmology

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Ornamental and building stones of India – Commercial granites and their classification.

Unit II

Geological aspects in the quarrying of commercial granites – Selection criteria and evaluation – Quarrying techniques.

Unit III

Physical properties of commercial granites Engineering properties of Grannes – Environmental impacts of granite quarrying.

Unit IV

Granite cutting and polishing – Processing – Granite marketing – History of Granite Industry in India.

Unit V

Characteristic features of Gems- Classification and identification tests of Gems – Gemstone mines – Exploration in India – Distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones- Gem properties and instruments for identification.

Books Recommended

National Symposium on Commercial Granite, Volume GSI, DGM, 1995.

Practical Gem cutting by Nance and Ronperry, David & Charles, London, 1982.

Gem and Gem Industry in India by Karnath K.V., Geo.Soc. Publish., Bangalore.

Granites by Venkat Reddy

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester VI – Practical IV – Industrial Geology

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Sampling of ores and evaluation problems – Sampling at regular intervals, Sampling at irregular intervals – Ore Reserve Estimation.

Estimation of ores – Ferrous & Ferric Iron, Copper, Calcium and Lead

Water analysis by standard methods – Determination of the following chemical parameters – pH, EC, TDS and total hardness

Identification of mineral powders by chemical methods (Blow-pipe tests) – Galena, Chalcopyrite, Bauxite, Calcite, Witherite, Strontianite, Celestite, Pyrite, Apatite, Ilmenite, Psilomelane & Rhodochrosite

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester VI – Practical III – Industrial Minerals and Ores

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Megascopic and Microscopic identification, description, mode of occurrence and uses of Industrial and ore minerals – Chalcopyrite, Bornite, Cuprite, Malachite, Azurite, Galena, Cerussite, Anglesite, Sphalerite, Pyrite, Marcasite, Hematite, Magnetite and Siderite.

Pyrolusite, Psilomelane, Rhodonite, Rhodochrosite, Stibnite, Cassiterite, Cinnabar, Chromite, Rutile, Ilmenite, Monazite, Woiframite, Molybdenite, Bauxite, Graphite, Realgar, Orpiment, Willemite and Franklinite.

Calcite, Dolomite, Gypsum, Halite, Anhydrite, Chalk, Kaolin, Magnesite, Fluorite, Asbestos, Graphite, Yellow Ochre, Red Ochre, Limonite, Laterite, Vermiculite, Anatite, Corundum, Garnet, Feldspar and Quartz.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester VI – Paper XII – Environmental Geology and Engineering Geology

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Environmental Geology

Unit I

Introduction to Environmental Geology – Brief account of different energy systems – Short account of renewable and non-renewable resources.

Unit II

Mitigation and Disaster and remedial measures relating to natural hazards.

Unit III

Impact of wind on environment – environmental degradation due to mining and mineral processing – effects of urbanization on quality of surface waters and causes for groundwater pollution – Impacts of man on environment – Types of Pollution.

Engineering Geology

Unit IV

Role of engineering geology in civil construction and mining industry – Various stages of engineering geological investigation for civil engineering projects – Engineering properties of rocks.

Unit V

Dams and Reservoirs – Brief description of the following types: Earth dam, Concrete dam, Arch dam and Buttress dam – Tunnels – Geological consideration and description.

Aseismic design of building – Influence of geological conditions on foundation and design buildings – Earthquakes and seismicity – Seismic zones of India.

Books Recommended

Engineering Geology by Legget

Environmental Geoscience by AN. Strahler and AM. Strahier, Hamilton Publishing Co., Santa Barbara, 1973.

Environmental Geology by DR. Coates, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1981.

Environmental Geology by C.W. Montgomery, Wm.C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa, 1989.

Principles of Environmental Chemistry by H. Kothandaraman and Geetha Swaminathan, B.I. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1997.

Principles of Engineering Geology by Krynine, D.H. and Judd, W.R., CBS edition, 1998.

Engineering Geology by Fox, C.S.

Rock engineering applications by Franklin, J.A and Dusscault.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester VI – Paper XI – Mineral Economics and Dimensional Stones

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Concepts of mineral economics – Its importance in National development – International mineral trade – Reserves and resources of World mineral supplies – Assessment of Indian mineral resources.

Unit II

Mineral legislation – National mineral policy – Mineral taxation – Mineral conservation – Structure and organization of mineral industry – Valuation of mineral property.

Unit III

Future mineral consumption and Indian economy – Energy demand and future supply – Prevention of environmental hazards due to mining and atomic energy – Marine mineral resources.

Unit IV

Building stones – Physical and engineering properties of dimensional stones – Ornamental and building stones of India.

Unit V

Geological significance, commercial importance and their occurrence in Tamil Nadu of the following dimensional stones: Granites, Dolerites, Limestones and Sandstones.

Books Recommended

Mineral Economics by Sinha R.K. and Sharma N.L: Oxford and IBH, 1970.

World mineral suppliers by Govett. G.J.S and Govett M.H: Elservier Amsterdam, 1976.

Economic Mineral deposits (Revised) by Jonsen, M.L.S and Bateman, A.M: John Wiley And Son, 1981.

Geology for Engineers by Blyth, I.G.H and De Freitas, M.H: ELBS Publications, 1992.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester VI – Paper X – Mining Geology and Mineral Dressing

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Mining principles – Definition of following Mining terms:- Shaft, Adit, Slope, Tenor, Assay and Run off mine.

Unit II

Classification of mining, methods – Open cast mining – Ore vs overburden ratio – Formation of benches – Stability of Slope – Alluvial mining – Neyveli lignite mine – Methods of granite mining.

Unit III

Methods of underground mining – Outline of the method of coal mining – Role of geologists in mining industry – Evaluation of ore bodies and their extension – Ore reserve estimation – Principle and types of sampling.

Unit IV

Principles and scope of mineral dressing – Physical and Chemical properties of minerals as applied to mineral dressing – Crushing and Grinding processes.

Unit V

Sizing – Flotation – magnetic separation processes in mineral dressing – Filtration processes.

Books Recommended

Courses in Mining Geology by R.N.P. Arogyaswamy

Mining Geology by H.E. Mckinstry.

Elements of ore Dressing by A.E. Taggart.

Principles of Mineral Dressing by Gandin, AM. Tata McGraw H. N. Publisher

Mining Engineers Hand Book by Robert Perk, John Wiley Eastern Ltd.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester V – Paper IX – Regional Geology of Tamil Nadu

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Geomorphology: Physiography – Western and Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu and their structural aspects. Cauvery and Tambraparani Rivers – Soils of Tamil Nadu – Structural aspects – Eastern Ghat strike.

Unit II

Archaeans – Anorthosites of Sittampundi, Kadavur and Oddancnatram – Alkali Rocks of Sivanmalai, Cordierite, Sillimanite rocks of Trichy and Madurai, Charnockites of Pallavaram – Gondwanas – Sriperumbudur beds and Uttatur of Trichy.

Unit III

Stratigraphy: Cretaceous of Trichy – Cenomanian marine transgression – Virudhathalam area – Pondicherry area – Tertiary group of Cauvery basin.

Unit IV

Cuddalore Sandstone, Conjeevaram gravels – Recent deposits – Coastal and river deposits, mode of occurrence and distribution of Precious and Semi – precious stones in Tamil Nadu.

Unit V

Mode of occurrence, uses, origin and distribution in Tamil Nadu of the following mineral deposits. Iron ores of Kanjamalai, Gauthimalai Bauxite deposits of Shevaroy hill, Gypsum beds of Chitali Graphite beds of Sivaganga. Magnesite of Chalk hills – Enn ore silica sands-clay beds of South Arcot and Trichy – Brief note on commercial use and occurrence of dolerite and granite.

Books Recommended

Geology of India and Burma by M. S. Krishnan, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi

Introduction to Indian Economic minerals by N,L. Sharma and K.S.V, Ram, Dhanbad
Minerals of India by D.N. Wadia, National Book Trust, India.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester V – Paper VIII – Petrology and Coal Geology

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Physical and chemical composition of Petroleum – Occurrence and origin of Petroleum; Reservoir rock – Classification of reseroir traps; General – Structural – Stratigraphic traps – Salt domes.

Unit II

Kinds of surface naps – Isopach maps, Facies maps, Palaeogeologic maps and geophysical maps. Distribution of Petroleum in India – Oil fields of Western india, Ankleswar oil field, Cambay basin, Bombay High.

Unit III

Distribution of Oil fields of East Coast, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery basins – Oil fields of Assam – Associated products and uses of oil and gas – Geologic and economic factors in Petroleum Industry.

Unit IV

Definition, origin of coal, stratigraphy of coal measures, Fundamentals of Coal petrology, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coals; constituent of coal, Industrial application of coal petrology.

Unit V

Indian coal fields – Gondwana coal fields – Jharia, Raniganj, Karampura, Bokaro and Andhra Pradesh. Tertiary coal fields – Assam, Tamil Nadu (Neyveli) and Rajasthan.

Books Recommended

Geology of Petroleum – A. I. Levorsen, CBS Pub. Dir.

India’s Mineral Resources – S. Krishnaswamy, IBH Pub. Co. Ltd New Delhi.

Industrial minerals and rocks – S. Deb. (1980) Allied Publishers. (P)

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester V – Paper VII – Industrial Minerals

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Industrial Minerals – Mode of occurrence – Use and distribution in India – Ceramic minerals, Granites and Building stones, Cement – Raw Minerals – Mineral pigments – Refractory and abrasive minerals Fertilizer minerals.

Unit II

Mode of occurrences – Use and distribution in India – Diamond – Gemstones, Asbestos, Mica, Vermiculite, Barite, Talc, Glass, Sand and Fullers earth

Unit III

Indian occurrences and uses of the following metallic ores – Iron, Manganese, Aluminium

Unit IV

Indian occurrences and use of basic metal deposits – Copper, Lead and Zinc – Noble metal Deposits – Gold and Silver.

Unit V

Indian occurrences and use of Molybdenum, Magnesium, Zirconium and Berylium. Atomic minerals – Uranium, Thorium and Pitchblende

Books Recommended

Industrial Minerals and Rocks of India by S.Deb, Allied Publishers (P) Ltd., 1980.

India’s Mineral Resource by S.Krishnasamy, Oxford and IBH Publishers, 1972

Minerals of Madras, N.K.N. Iyengar, Department of Industries and Commerce, Tamil Nadu Government, 1964.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester IV – Practical II – Minerlogy, Petrology and Economic Geology

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

CYRSTALLOGRAPIHY -

Identification and descriptions of crystal models of normal class type minerals in each system.

Important twin crystal models.

Mineralogy and Petrology:

Megascopic and Microscopic identification and description of important minerals and rocks.

Economic Geology:

Megascopic identification – mode of occurrence and uses of important ore minerals.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester IV – Paper VI – Hydrogeology and Remote Sensing

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Hydrogeology

Unit I

Groundwater in hydrologic cycle – Origin of water – Meteoric – Juvenile – Magmatic and Seawater – Occurrence – Vertical distribution – Zones of aeration and saturation, water table – Springs – Rock properties affecting groundwater.

Brief description of types on interstices, porosity, specific yield, specific retention and permeability.

Unit II

Types of aquifers: Unconfined – Confined – Perched – Aquifuge – Aquitard – Aquiclude – Ground water levels and a short account of causes for their fluctuations – Groundwater recharge – Artificial recharge.

Unit III

Groundwater movement: Darcy’s law – Physical and chemical properties of water quality criteria for different uses.

Ground water exploration – Surface methods – Electrical resistivity method.

Groundwater basins of Tamil Nadu.

Remote Sensing

Unit IV

Definition – Electromagnetic spectrum – Short account of different remote sensing systems – Platform – Sensors.
Photogeology: Aerial photographs -Types of aerial photographs – vertical and oblique photographs – Photoscales – Mosaic.

Unit V

Stereoscopy: Description of lens and mirror stereoscopes – Procedure to use them for the study of stereopairs – An outline of photo recognition elements and their application in geological studies.

Books Recommended

Modern Hydrogeology by Raphael G. Kazmann, Harper and Row Pub., New York, 1972.

Ground water Hydrogeology by D.K. Todd, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1980.

Groundwater by H.M Raghunath, 2nd edition, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, 1987.

Introduction to Hydrogeology by Jr. Warren Viessman, Gary L. Lewis and John W.Knaff, 3rd edition, Harper and Row Publishers, Singapore, 1989.

Ground water by S. Ramakrishnan, K.J. Grapharts, chennai, 1998.

Hydrogeology by Davis and Dewiest, John Wiley and sons, Inc., New York.

Photogeology by C. Miller, McGraw Hill Co.Inc., New York, 1961.

Principles and Applications of Photogeology by S.N. Pandey.

Remote Sensing by Lillesand and Keifer, McGraw Hill Co. Inc., New York.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester IV – Paper V – Economic Geology

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Processes of mineral formation – Primary and secondary processes: Brief outline of Magmatic, Sublimate, Contact metasornatic, Hydrothermal, Metasomatic replacement, Sedimentary, Evaporite, Placer, Residual, Oxidation and Supergene enrichment and Metamorphic.

Classification of Mineral deposits – controls of ore localization.

Unit II

Mode of Occurrence, uses and distribution of the following ores and industrial minerals in India: Realgar, Orpiment, Stibnite, Molybdenite, Cinnabar, Gypsum, Corundum, Red Ochre, Ilmenite, Magnesite, Chromite, Cassiterite, Rutile, Yellow Ochre, Graphite, Calcite, Dolomite, Cerrusite, Fluorite, Phosphate, Monazite and Asbestos.

Unit III

Mode of Occurrence, Origin and distribution of the following ore deposits in India: Gold, Iron, Copper, Manganese, Lead & Zinc and Bauxite.

Unit IV

Minerals required for the following industries: Abrasive, Fertilizer, Paint, Refractory, Glass, Ceramic and Cement – their mode of occurrence, physical properties, chemical composition and distribution in India.

Unit V

Coal and Petroleum – Occurrence, Origin and distribution in India.

Building Stones – Characters, Distribution and mode of occurrence.

Mineral wealth of Tamil Nadu.

Books Recommended

Economic Mineral Deposits by A.N. Bateman, Asian Publishing House, 1962.

Ore Deposits of India by Gokhale and Rao, Thomson Press, New Delhi, 1972.

India’s Mineral resources by S. Krishnaswamy, Oxford IBH Publishing Co. ,New Delhi,. 1979.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester III – Paper IV – Petrology

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Definition-Rocks, their general classification into igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.

Forms and structures of igneous rocks- Textures and microstructural characteristics of igneous rocks – Classification of igneous rocks.

Petrografic characteristics of the following: Granite, Granodiorite, Syenite, Diorite, Gabbro, Dunite, Peridotite, Anorthosite, Pegmatite and Aplite.

Unit II

Magma – Composition and constituents.

Crystallisation of Simple eutectic (Diopside – Anorthite) system – Mix crystal series (Albite – Anorthite system) – Binary system showing incongruent melting (Forsterite – Silica system) – Ternary system (Albite-Anorthite – Diopside).

Bowen’s reaction series – Differentiation and Assjmilation.

Unit III

An outline of classification of sedimentary rocks – Important sedimentary structures: Bedding – Cross bedding, Current bedding, Torrential bedding, Graded bedding and Ripple marks.

Textures of sedimentary rocks.

Residual deposits – Mode of formation – characteristics and important types.

Unit IV

Clastic deposits – classification – Composition – Textures.

Descriptions of Sandstone, Shale, Arkose and Greywacke.

Definition, agents and kinds of metamorphism – Zones, grades and facies of metamorphism.

Textures and Structures.

Unit V

Brief outline of Cataclastic, Contact, Thermal, Regional and Dynamothermal metamorphism – Metasomatism – Chamockites – Anatexis – Description of the following: Quartzite, Slate, Schist, Gneiss and marble.

Books Recommended

Petrography and Petrology by F.F. Grout, McCraw Hill, New York, 1932

Theoretical Petrology by T.F.W. Barth, John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1952

The Evolution of Igneous rocks by N.L. Bowen, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1956.

The Origin of Metamorphic and Metasomatic Rocks by H.Ramberg, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1958

Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology by FJ. Turner and J. Verhoogen, McGraw Hill, New York, 1960.

Microscopic Sedimentary Petrology By A.V. Carozzi, John Wiley and Sons mc, New York, 1960.

Petrology of Igneous rocks by Hatch and Wells, Thomas Murphy, 1961.

Petrology by W.T. Haung, McGraw Hill Book Co, 1962.

Metamorphic Petrology By F.J. Turner and J. Verhoogen, McGraw Hill, New York, 1968.

The Sedimentary Rocks By F.H. Hatch and R.H Rastal, London, 1971.

Petrology of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks by Donold W.Hyndrnan, McGraw Hill Book, 1972.

Petrognesis of Metamorphic rocks by F.H. Winkler, Narosa Publishers, New Delhi, 1974.

Petrology of the Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks of India by S.C. Chatterjee, Macmillan Co., India Ltd., Bombay, 1974.

Sedimentary rocks by E.J. Pettijohn, Harper and Row, London., 1975.

Petrology for students by N.R. Nockolds, R.W. O’know and G.A. Channer, Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Sedimentary Petrology by H. Biatt, W.h. Freeman and Co., New York, 1992.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester III – Paper III – Mineralogy

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

Unit I

Definition of crystal – Morphological characters of crystals – Faces – Forms – Edge – Solid angles – Interfacial angle – Millerian system of notation.

Study of simple forms and their combinations in the Normal class of the following systems. Isometric. Tetragonal, Orthorhombic, Hexagonal, Monoclinic, Triclinic.

Important types of twinning.

Unit II

Physical properties of minerals.

Descriptive mineralogy of the following rock forming minerals: Feldspar group – Amphibole group – Pyroxene group.

Unit III

Olivine group – Quartz group – Mica group – Garnet group.

Unit IV

Descriptive study of the following minerals: Beryl, Apatite, Fluorite, Kyanite, Sillimanite, Andalusite, Topaz, Tourmaline, Calcite, Dolomite, Staurolite, Chlorite, Talc, Serpentine, Zircon, Rutile arid Epidote.

Unit V

Characteristics of light – Polarized light – Petrological microscope and its parts – Uses of quartz wedge, Gypsum plate and Mica plate – Properties of Isotropic and Anistropic minerals observed under parallel and crossed nicols – Properties of Uniaxial minerals – Optic axes – Double refraction – Becke test – Dichrosim – Properties of Biaxial minerals – Extinction angle and Pleochroism.

Books Recommended

Optical Mineralogy by P.R.J. Naidu, Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Bombay, 1981.

Optical Crystallography by E.E. Wahlstrom, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1945.

Elements of Optical Mineralogy by A.N.Winchell, Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1948.

An Introduction to Crystallography by F.C. Philips, Longmans, Green and Co., Great Britian, 1956.

Dana’s Manual of Mineralogy by Cornelius S. Huribut, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1959.

Optical Mineralogy by Paul F. Kerr, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1959.

An Introduction to Rock-forming Minerals by W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie and J. Zussman, Longman Group Ltd., London, 1979.

Rutley’s Elements of Mineralogy by C.D. Gribble, 27th Edition, Unwin Hyman, London, 1988.

Dana’s Text Book of Mineralogy by W.E. Ford, 4th Edition, Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, 1992.

University of Madras – Syllabus of Bachelor of Science (BSc) Industrial-Geology – Semester II – Practical I – Paleontology and Structural Geology

Duration of Examination: 3 hrs
Maximum Marks: 100
Credits: 4

PALEONTOLOGY

Study of important fossils from the following groups: Brachiopods, Cephalopods, Pelecypods, Gastropods, Graptolites, Corals, Echinoids, Crinoids, Blastoid, Trilobites and Plant Fossils.

STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

Contour maps and their interpretation – Exercises to predict trend of the outcrop of horizontal, vertical and inclined beds with respect to topography – Deciphering dip and strike of outcrops – Construction of map when 3 points over a bedding plane are given – Construction of vertical section – Order of superposition – vertical thickness of formation.

Reading of fold and fault maps – Construction of vertical sections – Determination of ages of structures – Geological history.

Solving simple dip and strike problems by Trigonometrical and graphical methods – determination of true thickness of beds by calculations Three point problems by trigonometrical methods.

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